Controlling the rheological behavior of nucleated polypropylene via incorporating dimethylbenzylidene sorbitol (DMDBS) masterbatch

Document Type : Original research


1 Polymeric Materials Research Group (PMRG), Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11155-9466, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Dimethylbenzylidene sorbitol (DMDBS) is a common nucleating/clarifier agent used in polypropylene (PP). So many researchers have looked at different aspects of incorporating this additive on crystallization behavior of PP. The current study has focused on a rather new subject and that is the role of carrier resin of DMDBS masterbatch on the rheological behaviour of polypropylene. This goal has been achieved through studying the role of carrier resin on phase separation behavior of DMDBS upon cooling. It has been shown that a permanent bonding forms between the molecules of carrier resin and DMDBS in the masterbatch and this bonding slows down the crystallization kinetics of DMDBS in the final blend which in turn, influences its rheological behavior. Frequency sweep experiments conducted on a block co-polypropylene showed that lower values of storage shear modulus (G’), loss shear modulus (G’’), and complex shear viscosity (ɳ*) are observed if DMDBS is incorporated in the form of masterbatch. Interestingly, a different effect was observed when the masterbatch constituents were employed directly into the polypropylene, illustrating the importance of the mentioned bonding between DMDBS and the carrier resin in the masterbatch.


Main Subjects

  1. Horváth F, Bodrogi D, Hilt B, Pregi E, Menyhárd A (2022) Organogelators with dual β- and α-nucleating ability in isotactic polypropylene. J Therm Anal Calorim 147: 9451-9468
  2. Schawe JEK, Budde F, Alig I (2018) Nucleation activity at high supercooling: Sorbitol-type nucleating agents in polypropylene. Polymer 153: 587-596
  3. Abreu AA, Talabi SI, de Almeida Lucas A (2021) Influence of nucleating agents on morphology and properties of injection-molded polypropylene. (2021) Polym Adv Technol 32: 2197-2206
  4. Sreenivas K, Basargekar R, Kumaraswamy G (2011) Phase separation of DMDBS from PP: Effect of polymer molecular weight and tacticity. macromolecules 44: 2358-2364
  5. Lipp J, Shuster M, Terry AE, Cohen Y (2006) Fibril formation of 1,3:2,4-Di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol in a polypropylene melt. Langmuir 22: 6398-6402
  6. Bernland K, Goossens JG, Smith P, Tervoort TA (2016) On clarification of haze in polypropylene. J Polym Sci Pol Phys 54: 865-874
  7. Farahani M, Jahani Y, Kakanejadifard A, Ohshima M (2022) Self-assembly of temperature sensitive additives in polypropylene melt and its influence on viscoelasticity. Ind Eng Chem Res 61: 2783-2791
  8. Kristiansen M, Werner M, Tervoort T, Smith P, Blomenhofer M, Schmidt HW (2003) The binary system isotactic polypropylene/ bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene)sorbitol: Phase behavior, nucleation, and optical properties. Macromolecules 36: 5150-5156
  9. Nogales A, Olley RH, Mitchell GR (2003) Directed crystallisation of synthetic polymers by low-molar-mass self-assembled templates. Macromol Rapid Commun 24: 496-502
  10. Wilder EA, Hall CK, Khan SA, Spontak RJ (2003) Effects of composition and matrix polarity on network development in organogels of poly(ethylene glycol) and dibenzylidene sorbitol. Langmuir 19: 6004-6013
  11. Nuñez CM, Whitfield JK, Mercurio DJ, Ilzhoefer JR, Spontak RJ, Khan SA (1996) Effect of molecular architecture on DBS-induced block copolymer gels: A rheological study. Macromol Symp 106: 275-286
  12. Frässdorf W, Fahrländer M, Fuchs K, Friedrich C (2003) Thermorheological properties of selfassembled dibenzylidene sorbitol structures in various polymer matrices: Determination and prediction of characteristic temperatures. J Rheo 47: 1445-1454
  13. Carmeli E, Kandioller G, Gahleitner M, Müller AJ, Tranchida D, Cavallo D (2021) Continuous cooling curve diagrams of isotacticpolypropylene/ polyethylene blends: mutual nucleating effects under fast cooling conditions. Macromolecules 2021 54: 4834-4846
  14. Prashantha K, Soulestin J, Lacrampe MF, Claes M, Dupin G, Krawczak P (2008) Multiwalled carbon nanotube filled polypropylene nanocomposites based on masterbatch route: Improvement of dispersion and mechanical properties through PP-g-MA addition. Exp Polym Lett 2: 735-745
  15. Shokrollahi M, Marouf BT, Bagheri R (2022) Role of the nucleating agent masterbatch carrier resin in the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Polym J 54: 1127-1132
  16. Wilsens CH, Hawke LG, de Kort GW, Saidi S, Roy M, Leoné N, Hermida-Merino D, Peters GW, Rastogi S (2019) Effect of thermal history and shear on the viscoelastic response of iPP containing an oxalamide-based organic compound. Macromolecules 52: 2789-2802
  17. Balzano L, Portale G, Peters GW, Rastogi S (2008) Thermoreversible DMDBS phase separation in iPP: The effects of flow on the morphology. Macromolecules 41: 5350-5355
  18. Gotsis AD, Zeevenhoven BLF, Tsenoglou C (2004) Effect of long branches on the rheology of polypropylene. J Rheo 48: 895-914
  19. Adak B, Joshi M, Butola BS (2018) Polyurethane/ clay nanocomposites with improved helium gas barrier and mechanical properties: Direct versus master-batch melt mixing route. J Appl Polym Sci 135: 46422
  20. Lopes Pereira EC, Soares BG, Silva AA, Barra GM (2021) Master batch approach for developing PVDF/EVA/CNT nanocomposites with cocontinuous morphology and improved electrical conductivity. J Appl Polym Sci 138: 51164 21.
  21. Meijer-Vissers T, Goossens H (2013) The influence of the cooling rate on the nucleation efficiency of isotactic poly(propylene) with bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene)sorbitol. Macromol Symp 330: 150-165
  22. Qi XD, Sun DX, Yang CJ, Wang WY, Wang Y (2019) Synergistic toughening of carbon nanotubes and nucleating agent in polypropylene/ ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer blend. Polym Test 75: 185-191
  23. Zhao Y, Yao C, Chang T, Zhu Y (2019) The influence of DMDBS on crystallization behavior and crystalline morphology of weakly-phaseseparated olefin block copolymer. Polymers 11, 552
  24. Quiñones-Jurado ZV, Ávila-Orta CA, Castillo- Reyes BE, Mata-Padilla JM, Hsiao BS, Medellín-Rodríguez FJ, Waldo-Mendoza MA (2018) Effect of sorbitol templates on the preferential crystallographic growth of isotactic Polypropylene Wax. Crystals 8: 59
  • Receive Date: 08 July 2022
  • Revise Date: 29 August 2022
  • Accept Date: 31 August 2022
  • First Publish Date: 31 August 2022