Compatibilization of polycarbonate/poly (ethylene terephthalate) blends by addition of their transesterification product

Document Type: Original research

Authors

Department of polymer processing, Iran polymer and petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In this study, poly carbonate (PC) and poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were reactive melt-blended under two different conditions to produce PC/PET copolymers. For each condition, samples were taken at specified mixing times representative a specific structure of copolymers and each one employed to physically compatibilize a PC/PET blend with a fixed composition. Reactive blending and copolymer structure are described by solubility analysis results. Continues declining and going through a minimum are two trends of solubility versus mixing time depending on reactive blending condition. Decreasing and increasing patterns of solubility curves were attributed to the formation of copolymers with longer and shorter block lengths, respectively, and the level of solubility was related to the amount of produced copolymers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to investigate blend compatibility. The content and structure of copolymers showed favorable correlation of Tg differences of blend components and PET crystallinity. As expected, Tg of blend components approached to each other by the addition of copolymers, and the copolymers with longer block length caused less Tg differences. The melting point and crystallinity of PET were affected by introducing the copolymers too. In addition to the main melting endotherm, melting endotherm peaks of compatibilized blends had a shoulder that its corresponding melting point and crystallinity are related to the copolymer structure so that the longer length of block copolymer or higher its amount leads to the higher melting points. The SEM micrographs showed that, after the addition of the copolymer, smaller PET particles formed and uniformly dispersed in the PC matrix. A strong correlation between the blend morphology and the level of blend compatibility was demonstrated. The more compatibilized PC/PET blend, the better dispersion of PET particles in the PC matrix was obtained. The results of this study could be a basis for designing and production of compatibilizers suitable to achieve a desired level of compatibility in PC and polyester blends, specially in PC/PET blend.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Chirayil CJ, Joy J, Maria HJ, Krupa I, Thomas S (2016) Polyolefin Compounds and Materials. 1st ed., Springer, 265-283
  2. Quigley JP, Herrington K, Baird DG (2014) Enhanced electrical properties of polycarbonate/carbon nanotube nanocomposites prepared by a supercritical carbon dioxide aided melt blending method. Polym 55: 6167-6175
  3. Jazani OM, Arefazar A, Peymanfar MR, Saeb MR, Talaei A, Bahadori B (2013) The influence of NBR-g-GMA compatibilizer on the morphology and mechanical properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate/NBR ternary blends. Polym- Plast Technol 52: 1295-1302
  4. Zarrintaj P, Moghaddam AS, Manouchehri S, Atoufi Z, Amiri A, Amirkhani MA, Nilforoushzadeh M A, Saeb M R, Hamblin M R, Mozafari M (2017) Can regenerative medicine and nanotechnology combine to heal wounds? The search for the ideal wound dressing. Nanomedicine 12: 2403-2422
  5. Khonakdar HA, Jafari SH, Mirzadeh S, Kalaee MR, Zare D, Saeb MR (2013) Rheology-morphology correlation in PET/PP blends: Influence of type of compatibilizer. J Vinyl Addit Techn 19: 25-30
  6. Mohammadi Y, Khonakdar HA, Jafari SH, Saeb MR, Golriz M, Wagenknecht U, Heinrich G, Sosnowski S, Szymanski R (2015) Simulation of microstructural evolution during reactive blending of PET and PEN: Numerical integration of kinetic differential equations and Monte carlo method. Macromol Theor Simul 24: 152-167
  7. Jazani O M, Rastin H, Formela K, Hejna A, Shahbazi M, Farkiani B, Saeb MR (2017) An investigation on the role of GMA grafting degree on the efficiency of PET/PP-g-GMA reactive blending: Morphology and mechanical properties. Polym Bull 74: 4483-4497
  8. Jazani OM, Arefazar A, Jafari SH, Saeb MR (2011) Study on the effect of processing conditions on the impact strength of PP/SEBS/PC ternary blends using Taguchi experimental analysis. J Polym Eng 31: 237-241
  9. Pesetskii S, Jurkowski B, Filimonov O, Koval V, Golubovich V (2011) PET/PC blends: Effect of chain extender and impact strength modifier on their structure and properties. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 225-234
  10. Ishigami A, Kodama Y, Wagatsuma T, Ito H (2017) Evaluation of structures and morphologies of recycled PC/PET blends fabricated by high-shear kneading processing. Int Polym Proc 32: 568-573
  11. Meziane O, Guessoum M, Bensedira A, Haddaoui N (2017) Thermal characterization of reactive blending of 70PC/30PET mixtures prepared in the presence/absence of samarium acetylacetonate as a transesterification catalyst. J Polym Eng 37: 577-586
  12. Fiorini M, Berti C, Ignatov V, Toselli M, Pilati F (1995) New catalysts for poly (ethylene terephthalate)/ bisphenol a polycarbonate reactive blending. J Appl Polym Sci 55: 1157-1163
  13. Guessoum M, Haddaoui N (2006) Influence of the addition of tetrabutyl orthotitanate on the rheological, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of polycarbonate/poly (ethylene terephthalate) blends. Int J Polym Mater 55: 715-732
  14. Mbarek S, Jaziri M, Carrot C (2006) Recycling poly (ethylene terephtalate) wastes: Properties of poly (ethylene terephtalate)/polycarbonate blends and the effect of a transesterification catalyst. Polym Eng Sci 46: 1378-1386
  15. Pereira PS, Mendes LC, Abrigo RE (2008) Changes in properties of PET/PC blend by catalyst and time. Int J Polym Mater 57: 494-505
  16. Godard P, Dekoninck J, Devlesaver V, Devaux J (1986) Molten bisphenol-A polycarbonate—poly (ethylene terephthalate) blends. II. Kinetics of the exchange reaction. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 24: 3315-3324
  17. Mendes LC, Pereira PS (2013) Solid state polymerization: Its action on thermal and rheological properties of PET/PC reactive blends. Polímeros 23: 298-304
  18. Carrot C, Mbarek S, Jaziri M, Chalamet Y, Raveyre C, Prochazka F (2007) Immiscible blends of PC and PET, current knowledge and new results: Rheological properties. Macromol Mater Eng 292: 693-706
  19. Huang Z, Wang LH (1986) Infrared studies of transesterification in poly (ethylene terephthalate)/ polycarbonate blends. Macromol Rapid Comm 7: 255-259
  20. Swoboda B, Buonomo S, Leroy E, Cuesta JL (2007) Reaction to fire of recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends. Polym Degrad Stabil 92: 2247-2256
  21. Carraro C, Tartari V, Pippa R, Pilati F, Berti C, Toselli M, Fiorini M (1996) Reactive blending of commercial PET and PC with freshly added catalysts. Polym 37: 5883-5887
  22. Zhihui Y, Yajie Z, Xiaomin Z, Jinghua Y (1998) Effects of the compatibilizer PP-g- GMA on morphology and mechanical properties of PP/PC blends. Polym 39: 547-551
  23. Jeziórska R (2001) PET/RPP/PC blends by two stage reactive extrusion: effect of polypropylene reactively functionalized with an oxazoline group on morphology and mechanical properties. Macromol Symp Wiley Online Library, 21-28
  24. Ma H, Hao J (2011) Ordered patterns and structures via interfacial self-assembly: Superlattices, honeycomb structures and coffee rings. Chem Soc Rev 40: 5457-5471
  25. Xue ML, Yu YL, Sheng J, Chuah HH, Geng CH (2005) Compatibilization of poly (trimethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends by epoxy. Part 1. Miscibility and morphology. J Macomol Sci Phys 44: 317-329
  26. Xue ML, Yu YL, Sheng J, Chuah HH, Geng CH (2005) Compatibilization of poly (trimethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends by epoxy. Part 2. Melting behavior and spherulite morphology. J Macromol Sci Phys 44: 331-343
  27. Marchese P, Celli A, Fiorini M (2004) Relationships between the molecular architecture, crystallization capacity, and miscibility in poly (butylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends: A comparison with poly (ethylene terephthalate)/ polycarbonate blends. J Polym Sci Pol Phys 42: 2821-2832
  28. Kong Y, Hay J (2002) Miscibility and crystallization behaviour of poly (ethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends. Polym 43: 1805-1811