Electrical properties of UHMWPE/graphite nanoplates composites obtained by in-situ polymerization method

Document Type: Original research

Authors

1 Technological Center of Collective Use, OJSC “Technopark Slava”, Moscow, Russia

2 Department of Polymers and Composite Materials, Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Abstract

There are described nanocomposites based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene and graphite nanoplates prepared by in-situ polymerization method. It is carried out a comprehensive study of electric properties of these composites, including direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) properties. There is explored dependence of the conductivity and dielectric permeability on filler concentration, temperature, deformation and frequency of electric field. These relationships are compared with those for composites based on other carbon fillers including both nanoscale (carbon nanotubes, carbon black) and micron-sized (graphite, schungite) fillers. More specific electrical properties of investigated materials such as lower percolation threshold and higher dielectric permittivity compared to those for composites based on other carbon fillers are attributed to the plate-like shape of graphite nanoplates. These materials are distinguished also by their high electrical stability against temperature and deformation. Therefore, it makes graphite nanoplates the most preferable conductive filler for some practical applications. Some possible application areas for UHMWPE/graphite nanoplates nanocomposites will be also discussed.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Liang J, Wang Y, Huang Y, Ma Y, Liu Z, Cai J, Zhang C, Gao H, Chen Y (2009) Electromagnetic interference shielding of graphene/epoxy 10 composites. Carbon 47: 922-925
  2. Wang L, Hong J, Chen G (2010) Comparison study of graphite nanosheets and carbon black as fillers for high density polyethylene. Polym Eng Sci 50: 2176-2181
  3. Ghislandi MG (2012) Nano-scaled carbon fillers and their functional polymer composites. Ph.D. Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven
  4. Fim FC, Guterres JM, Basso NRS, Galland GB (2010) Polyethylene/graphite nanocomposites obtained by in-situ polymerization. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 48: 692-698
  5. Novoselov KS, Fal'ko VI, Colombo L, Gellert PR, Schwab MG, Kim K (2012) A roadmap for graphene. Nature 490: 192-200
  6. Du J, Cheng HM (2012) The fabrication, properties, and uses of graphene/polymer composites. Macromol Chem Phys 213: 1060- 1077
  7. Mukhopadhyay P, Gupta RK (2011) Trends and frontiers in graphene-based polymer nanocomposites. Plactics Eng 67: 32-42
  8. Kalaitzidou K, Fukushima H, Drzal LT (2007) Multifunctional polypropylene composites produced by incorporation of exfoliated graphite nanoplates. Carbon 45: 1446-1452
  9. Wang X, Song L, Rornwannchai W, Hu Y, Kandola B (2013) The effect of graphene presence in flame retarded epoxy resin matrix on the mechanical and flammability properties of glass fiber-reinforced composites. Compos Part A-Appl S 53: 88-96
  10. Tantis I, Psarras GC, Tasis D (2012) Functionalized graphene–poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites: Physical and dielectric properties. eXPRESS Polym Lett 6: 283-292
  11. Potts JR, Dreyer DR, Bielawski CW, Ruoff RS (2011) Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites. Polymer 52: 5-25
  12. He L, Tjong SC (2013) Low percolation threshold of graphene/polymer composites prepared by solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide in the polymer solution. Nanoscale Res Lett 8: 132 (1- 7)
  13. Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Dommett GHB, Kohlhaas KM, Zimney EJ, Stach EA, Piner RD, Nguyen SBT, Ruoff RS (2006) Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442: 282-286
  14. Kim I-H, Jeong YG (2010) Polylactide/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with enhanced thermal stability, mechanical modulus, and electrical conductivity. J Polym Sci Pol Phys 48: 850-858
  15. Li Y-C, Chen G-H (2007) HDPE/expanded graphite nanocomposites prepared via masterbatch process. Polym Eng Sci 47: 882-888
  16. Guo Y, Bao C, Song L, Yuan B, Hu Y (2011) In situ polymerization of graphene, graphite oxide, and functionalized graphite oxide into epoxy resin and comparison study of on-the-flame behavior. Ind Eng Chem Res 50: 7772-7783
  17. Wang X, Hu Y, Song L, Yang H, Xing W, Lu H (2011) In situ polymerization of graphene nanosheets and polyurethane with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. J Mater Chem 21: 4222-4227
  18. Potts JR, Lee SH, Alam TM, An J, Stoller MD, Piner RD, Ruoff RS (2011) Thermomechanical properties of chemically modified graphene/ poly(methyl methacrylate) composites made by in situ polymerization. Carbon 49: 2615-2623
  19. Eswaraiah V, Sankaranarayanan V, Ramaprabhu S (2011) Functionalized graphene–PVDF foam composites for EMI shielding. Macromol Mater Eng 296: 894-898
  20. Huang Y, Qin Y, Zhou Y, Niu H, Yu ZZ, Dong JY (2010) Polypropylene/graphene oxide nanocomposites prepared by in situ Ziegler−Natta polymerization. Chem Mater 22: 4096-4102
  21. Montagna LS, Fim FC, Galland GB, Basso NRS (2011) Synthesis of poly(propylene)/graphite nanocomposites by in Situ polymerization. Macromol Symp 299-300: 48-56
  22. Polschikov SV, Nedorezova PM, Klyamkina AN, Kovalchuk AA, Aladyshev AA, Shchegolikhin AN, Shevchenko VG, Muradyan VE (2013) Composite materials of graphene nanoplates and polypropylene, prepared by in situ polymerization. J Appl Pol Sci 127: 904-911
  23. Sturzel M, Kempe F, Thomann Y, Mark S, Enders M, Mulhaupt R (2012) Novel graphene UHMWPE nanocomposites prepared by polymerization filling using single-site catalysts supported on functionalized graphene nanosheet dispersions. Macromolecules 45: 6878-6887
  24. Rutkofsky M, Banash M, Rajagopal R, Chen J (2005) Using a carbon nanotube additive to make electrically conductive commercial polymer composites. SAMPE J 41: 54-55
  25. Eswaraiah V. (2011) Carbon nanotubes and graphene based polymer nanocomposites for strain sensing, EMI shilding and nanolubricant applications. Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
  26. Chmutin IA, Letiagin SV, Shevchenko VG, Ponomarenko AT (1994) Electro conducting polymer composites: Structure, contact phenomena and anisotropy. Polym Sci 36: 576- 588
  27. Kazantseva NE, Ryvkina NG, Chmutin IA (2003) Promising materials for microwave absorbers. J of Commun Technol El+ 48: 173-184
  28. Romasanta LJ, Hernández M, López-Manchado MA, Verdejo R (2011) Functionalised graphene sheets as effective high dielectric constant fillers. Nanoscale Res Lett 6: 508 (1-6)
  29. Ramanathan T, Abdala AA, Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Herrera-Alonso M, Piner RD, Adamson DH, Schniepp HC, Chen X, Ruoff RS, Nguyen ST, Aksay IA, Prud'Homme RK, Brinson LC (2008) Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites. Nature Nanotech 3: 327-331
  30. Hicks J, Behnam A, Ural A (2009) A computational study of tunneling-percolation electrical transport in graphene-based nanocomposites, Appl Phys Lett 95: 213103
  31. Brevnov PN, Kirsankina GR, Zabolotnov AS, Krashennikov VG, Grinev VG, Berezkina NG, Sinevich EA, Shcherbina MA, Novokshonova LA (2016) Synthesis and properties of nanocomposite materials based on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and graphite nanoplates. Polym Sci C 58: 38-49
  32. ASTM D257-99 Standard test method for DC resistance or conductance of insulating materials
  33. ASTM D150-98 Standard test methods for AC loss characteristics and permittivity (dielectric constant) of solid electrical insulating materials
  34. Dubnikova I, Kuvardina E, Krasheninnikov V, Lomakin S, Kuznetsov S, Chmutin I (2010) The effect of multiwalled carbon nanotube dimensions on the morphology, mechanical, and electrical properties of melt mixed polypropylene-based composites. J Appl Pol Sci 117: 259-272
  35. Lux F (1993) Models proposed to explain the electrical conductivity of mixtures made of conductive and insulating materials. J Mater Sci 28: 285-301
  36. Aneli N, Khananasvili LM, Zaikov GE (1998) Structuring and conductivity of polymer composites. New York, Nova Science Publ, 326
  37. Chmutin IA, Ryvkina NG, Solov'eva AB, Kedrina NF, Timofeeva VA, Rozhkova NN, McQueen D (2004) Specific features of electrical properties of composites with a shungite filler, Polym Sci Ser A 46: 664-671
  38. Efros AL, Shklovskii BI (1976) Critical behaviour of conductivity and dielectric constant near the metal-non-metal transition threshold. Phys Stat Sol (B) 76: 475-485
  39. Rozanov KN, Koledintseva MY, Yelsukov EP (2012) Composites and their properties. In: Tech- Rijeka, 331-358
  40. Nkamura S, Saito K, Sawa G, Kitagava K (1997) Percolation threshold of carbon black-polyethylene composites. Jpn J Appl Phys 36: 5163-5168
  41. Hindermann-Bischoff M, Ehrburger-Dolle F (2001) Electrical conductivity of carbon black-polyethylene composites. Experimental evidence of the change of cluster connectivity in PTC effect. Carbon 39: 375-382
  42. Van Der Putten D, Moonen JT, Brom HB (1993) Effect of fractality on the hopping conduction in carbon black/polymer composites. Synthetic Met 57: 5088-5093
  43. Song Y, Won-Noh T, Lee SI (1986) Experimental study of three dimensional ac conductivity and dielectric constant of a conductor-insulator composite near the percolation threshold. Phys Rev Lett 33: 904-908
  44. Tchmutin IA, Ponomarenko AT, Shevchenko VG, Ryvkina NG, C. Klason, McQueen D (1998) Electrical transport in 0-3 epoxy resin-barium titanate-carbon black polymer composite. J Polym Sci Pol Phys 36: 1847-1856
  45. Stognei OV, Kalinin YuE, Zolotukhin IV, Sitnikov AV, Wagner V, Ahltrs FJ (2003) Low temperature behaviour of the giant magnetoresistivity in CoFeB-SiOn granular composites. J Physics: Condensed Matter 14: 4267-4277
  46.  Sun Y, Shi G (2012) Graphene/polymer composites for energy applications. J Polym Sci Pol Phys 51: 231-253